Macau is also a Special Administrative Region of China that shares many structural similarities with its close neighbor Hong Kong, yet offers U.S. suppliers a market with distinct characteristics and opportunities. In this Guide, Macau is treated under each chapter following Hong Kong, with emphasis placed on those areas where the business climate diverges.
Macau enjoys significant autonomy: Formerly a Portuguese colony, Macau became a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) upon reversion to China on December 20, 1999. Macau maintains a high degree of autonomy except in foreign affairs and defense, and retains its own currency, laws, and border controls. Macau does not use common law, but uses code law patterned on the Portuguese system.
Macau’s GDP shrank by 0.4 percent in 2014. The economic contraction was mainly due to a decrease in exports of gaming services. Like Hong Kong, Macau is a free port with low taxation. Since liberalizing the gaming industry in 2002, industry experts calculate that Macau has received US$10 billion in U.S. foreign direct investment in the gaming industry (through 2012), spurring visitors and consumption. Other recent growth areas include finance, insurance, construction, real estate, and retail. Macau’s exports include textiles, garments, toys, electronics, and footwear. The main export markets are Hong Kong, mainland China and the United States, while imports originate primarily from mainland China and Hong Kong.
Macau’s huge gaming sector dominates the economy: Gaming revenues held up well during the recent economic downturn and, mainly due to gaming capacity increases, are expected to increase significantly over the next several years. Taxes on gaming revenues accounted for over 82.6 percent of the Government of Macau’s (GOM) revenues in 2014, generating a significant budget surplus.
Macau’s Key Characteristics: Rapid growth in tourism and inbound investment.
Macau enjoys a Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA) with mainland China: Macau’s 2003 agreement with mainland China – largely parallel to the arrangement Hong Kong enjoys with the mainland – has enhanced its economic integration with the PRC.
Gaming and tourism eclipse other sectors: In 2014, Macau’s gross gaming revenue topped US$43.9 billion, significantly exceeding the combined revenues of Nevada and Atlantic City combined. However, many U.S. firms are overlooking opportunities in other sectors.
Finding local talent can be challenging: Macau’s explosive growth has led to stiff competition among firms in identifying and retaining high-caliber local managers and staff. This challenge will endure due to Macau’s relatively small local population.
U.S. exports to Macau: In 2014, U.S. capital goods, consumer goods, fuel and lubricants and raw materials/semi-finished products (in comparison with 2013) rose by 65.6 percent, 11.3 percent, 28.6 percent and 40.0 percent respectively.
Specific U.S. export opportunities: The recent expansion of Macau’s hospitality sector has created demand for food/beverage products and services and related hospitality consumables. Other opportunities include: gaming equipment; architectural services; energy-efficient lighting, HVAC systems, and “smart building” systems; recreational and sports equipment; security equipment; hotel, restaurant, and resort management training services; computer and financial software; and meetings, incentives, conventions, and exhibitions (MICE) services such as exhibition and event planning.
Major projects: Among the leading private and public projects are the Cotai Strip development, (where Las Vegas Sands added 5,800 additional rooms in three new hotels, and neighboring competitor, Hong Kong-based SJM and Galaxy Entertainment, MGM Macau, and Wynn will be adding new facilities), the Pac On (maritime) Terminal; a new Light Rail Transit System; and the Hong Kong-Macau-Zhuhai Bridge.
Hengqin Island and Regional Development in Zhuhai, PRC. Hengqin Island in Zhuhai, adjacent to Macau’s Taipa and Coloane islands, is being developed by several investors who are also currently building projects in Macau. A number of planned projects have been reported in the press, including resorts, hotels, integrated retail and convention centers, luxury villas, education facilities and other services areas in Hengqin and elsewhere in Zhuhai. Notably, these projects will not include gaming facilities. The GOM finished a full-scale relocation of the University of Macau to Hengqin Island in August 2014. With focused planning and support from Beijing, Hengqin could help diversify Macau’s own economy beyond gaming.
Macau- and Hong Kong-based agents and distributors can increase sales in Macau. Many major gaming and hotel operators in Macau maintain procurement or purchasing offices in Hong Kong.
The U.S. Commercial Service Office in Hong Kong provides customized market research and business facilitation services in Macau.
The American Chamber of Commerce in Macau can provide U.S. newcomers with orientation and various types of member support, including entre to Macau’s leading trade shows.