Israel is open to foreign investment, and the government actively encourages and supports the inflow of foreign capital. There are few restrictions on foreign investors, except for parts of the defense or other industries that are closed to outside investors on national security grounds. There is no screening of foreign investment and no regulations regarding acquisitions, mergers, and takeovers that differ from those that Israelis must follow. Foreign investors are welcome to participate in Israel's privatization program. Investments in regulated industries (e.g. banking, insurance), however, require prior government approval. Investments in certain sectors may require a government license. Other regulations may apply, though usually on a national treatment basis. The Investment Promotion Center of the Ministry of Industry and Trade seeks to encourage potential investors to invest in Israel. The Center stresses Israel’s developed infrastructure, educated work force, open economy, and ties to the U.S. and Europe, and provides information about investment incentives available in Israel (details are discussed in the section Performance Requirements and Incentives).
Israel’s foreign exchange liberalization process was completed on January 1, 2003, when the last restrictions placed on the ability of institutional investors to invest abroad were removed. Foreign-currency controls have been completely abolished, and the Israeli shekel has become a freely convertible currency. The government does intervene in the currency markets at its discretion. Israeli individuals can invest, without restriction, in foreign markets. Foreign investors can open shekel accounts that allow them to invest freely in Israeli companies and securities. These shekel accounts are fully convertible into foreign exchange.
Most transactions must be carried out through an authorized dealer. An authorized dealer is a banking institution licensed to arrange, inter alia, foreign currency transactions for its clients. The authorized dealer must report large foreign exchange transactions to the Controller of Foreign Currency. There are no limitations or significant delays in the remittance of profits, debt service and capital gains.
There have been no expropriations of U.S.-owned businesses in Israel in the recent past. Israeli law requires adequate payment, with interest from day of expropriation until final payment, in cases of expropriation.
Israel has a written and consistently applied commercial law based on the British Companies Act of 1948 as amended. Israel's commercial law contains standard provisions governing company bankruptcy and liquidation. Personal bankruptcy is covered by a separate bankruptcy ordinance. Monetary judgments are always awarded in local currency. The judiciary is independent but businesses complain about the length of time required to obtain adjudications. The GOI accepts binding international arbitration of investment disputes between foreign investors and the state. Israel is a member of the International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) and the New York Convention of 1958 on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards.
There are no universal performance requirements on investments, but performance requirements, including inbound investment “offset” requirements, are often included in sales contracts with the government. In some sectors, there is a requirement that Israelis own a percentage of a company. Israel’s visa and residency requirements are not onerous. The GOI does not impose preferential policies on exports by foreign investors. Israel complies with the WTO agreement on Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIMs).
The State of Israel encourages both local and foreign investment by offering a wide range of incentives and benefits to investors in industry, tourism and real estate. Special emphasis is given to hi-tech companies and R&D activities.
All benefits available to Israelis are also available to foreign investors, who in some cases may enjoy even more generous tax treatment than domestic investors. Some of the benefits and requirements are described below. Investment incentives are outlined in the Law for the Encouragement of Capital Investment, and are coordinated by the Israel Investment Center (IIC).
For complete information, potential investors should contact:
Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labor
5 Bank of Israel Street,
Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labor
5 Bank of Israel Street,
Jerusalem 91036 490.
Summary of Incentives of the Law for the Encouragement of Capital Investment
Investment incentives are outlined in the Law for the Encouragement of Capital Investment, and are coordinated by the Israel Investment Center (IIC).
A. Qualification requirements
To qualify for benefits under the law the company has to be an industrial company registered in Israel and has to be internationally competitive (i.e. have export capability). However, Biotechnology and Nanotechnology companies do not have to meet the "export" requirement to qualify.
An investment in the Priority Area recognized by the law will be termed an Approved Investment and the company will be designated an Approved Enterprise.
The Office of the Chief Scientist (OCS) of the Ministry of Industry and Trade is responsible for implementing the government policy of encouraging and supporting industrial research and development in Israel. The OCS provides a variety of support programs that operate on a yearly budget of about $400 million. These programs have helped make Israel a major center of hi-tech entrepreneurship.
The main OCS program (the R&D Fund) supports R&D projects of Israeli companies by offering conditional grants of up to 50% of the approved R&D expenditure. If the project is commercially successful, the company shall be under the obligation to repay the grant by royalty payments.
A new support program for traditional industry was launched in 2005 by the OCS, which offers separate evaluation and discussion for projects from traditional industries.
There are four programs that enable High-Technology R&D Centers of Foreign Companies to receive government support.
Israel has developed a highly dynamic and vibrant Financial Services IT sector. In order to capitalize on the capabilities of this sector the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labor has devised an innovative support program directed at foreign Multi-National financial and banking corporations.
To qualify the following criteria must be met:
1. The applicant is a foreign company and does not conduct any R&D activities in Israel
2. Operates in the financial sector
3. Has a turnover in excess of $10 billion.
In order to complement the revised Law for the Encouragement of Capital Investments the government has decided to establish an additional program to increase employment in the outlying areas of Israel as well as specific centers with high unemployment.
In order to complement the revised Law for the Encouragement of Capital Investments, the government has decided to establish an additional program to increase employment in the outlying areas of Israel as well as in specific centers with high unemployment. Support will be granted for the establishment or expansion of industrial plants, telephone call centers, computer service support centers or logistic centers. In order to be eligible for this program these enterprises will have to employ a minimum number of workers at a minimum wage as detailed below. The maximum support per worker will be 135,000 NIS (~ $34,000) over a period of 30 months or 4,500 NIS (~ $1,100) per month.
2. Employment Grant Program for High Salaries (R&D Centers)
The Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labor has launched a new incentive program for supporting industrial companies established in the Negev (south) and Galilee (north) that pay high salaries to their workers. This program is part of a long term plan areas to spread the prosperity the Hi-Tech community has brought to Israel by providing these areas with high-paying quality work places.
3. The Employment Grant Program for Anchor (Large) Enterprises
The Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labor has launched a new incentive program for encouraging employment in large enterprises in the Negev (south) and Galilee (north).
This new program is part of a long term plan for the Negev and Galilee to increase employment possibilities in the north and south of Israel. To qualify industrial companies have to employ at least 100 workers at their plant. The program offers the investor employment grants that will be determined as a percentage of the employer's cost of salary for each new employee, for a period of 4 years.
The main aim of the law is to encourage the production of foreign films in Israel. To this end the law offers generous tax benefits that reduce the cost of production by up to 20%.
The Law for the Encouragement of the Production of Films was approved by the Israeli Knesset on October 28th, 2008.
The main aim of the law is to encourage the production of foreign films in Israel.
To this end the law offers generous tax benefits that reduce the cost of production by up to 20%.
The law recognizes two models: a) Foreign Productions b) Co-Productions
In both cases the benefits by law accrue to an Israeli production company who is expected to pass on these benefits to the foreign production company.
As massive repositories of potential ideas, the Israeli technological incubators have helped make Israel’s hi-tech entrepreneurship world-renowned. The Office of the Chief Scientist (OCS) of the Ministry of Industry and Trade takes great pride in implementing the government policy of encouraging and supporting industrial research and development in Israel at the earliest stages. Today, with both public and private incubators assisting entrepreneurs in turning their ideas into exportable commercial products, Israeli business ventures look forward to a promising future.
Businesses are eligible to receive grants for employing new immigrants and returning Israelis from The Ministry of Immigrant Absorption's Center for Absorption in Science.
The Manpower Training Department in the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labor actively assists industrial companies to train workers in the different disciplines and professions as required by the company.
The support program is offered via three possible programs:
Invest in Israel website homepage for investment incentives:
The Israeli legal system protects the right of both foreign and domestic entities to establish and own business enterprises, as well as the right to engage in remunerative activity. Private enterprises are free to establish, acquire, and dispose of interests in business enterprises. As part of its current privatization efforts, the Israeli government actively encourages foreign investment in privatizing government owned entities. The government is currently considering the recommendations of a special committee on increasing competitiveness in the economy, published in September 2011, which recommended decentralizing control of essential infrastructure, in order to prevent the transfer of control in state infrastructure to the hands of a few (i.e.: the existing domestic business empires). If decentralization were implemented it could impact, to a greater or lesser degree, the following sectors: water, energy, communications, transportation, healthcare, and natural resources.
Israel has a law against unfair competition. It is government policy to equalize competition between private and public enterprises, although the existence of monopolies and oligopolies in several sectors stifles competition. In the case of designated monopolies, defined as entities that supply more than 50% of the market, the government controls prices.
Israel has a modern legal system based on British common law that provides effective means for enforcing property and contractual rights. Courts are independent. Israeli civil procedures provide that judgments of foreign courts may be accepted and enforced by local courts. Secured interests in property are recognized and enforced by the Israeli judicial system. A reliable system of recording such security interests exists. Patent protection is provided for twenty years from filing. Both product and process patent protection for pharmaceuticals are permitted. However the Israeli patent system still allows for pre-grant opposition to patents, which may result in significant delays for some applicants. Israel employs compulsory licensing in very limited circumstances, mostly when the product is not being supplied in Israel on “reasonable” terms.
Israel is a Member of the WTO and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). It is a signatory to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, the Universal Copyright Convention, the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, and the Patent Cooperation Treaty. Israel was obligated to implement the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) by
January 1, 2000 but has failed to do so to date.
Of particular importance is the inadequate intellectual property protections against unfair commercial use of data generated to obtain marketing approval for pharmaceuticals. This has discouraged U.S. companies from substantial investment in the health sector.
As a result of the deficiencies of Israel’s intellectual property regime, it was placed on the USTR’s Special 301 “Priority Watch List” in 2005. In February of 2010, Israel reached agreement with the U.S. to modify its intellectual property laws to address shortcomings in its treatment of new pharmaceutical products related to data exclusivity, patent term extension and publication of patent applications. Once appropriate legislation consonant with the agreement is submitted to the Knesset, Israel will be moved from the Special 301 Priority Watch List to the Watch List. When legislation compliant with the agreement is fully implemented, Israel will be moved off the Special 301 list altogether.
Israel has yet to enact the modifying legislation for patent term extensions and patent publications and there are industry concerns that the draft legislation under consideration for these two provisions falls short of the terms of the 2010 agreement.
Israel's present copyright law is based on the United Kingdom Copyright Act of 1911, with subsequent amendments. Protections include the exclusive right to (a) copy or reproduce the work; (b) produce, reproduce, perform or publish translations; (c) publicly perform plays or novels; and (d) make recordings of literary, dramatic or musical works. Criminal penalties are also provided for certain commercial infringing activities. The Knesset recently passed new copyright legislation. In general, this law is an improvement over the old Israeli law, in that is more modern its structure, terminology
and scope. Temporary copies are explicitly protected and a “making available” right is explicitly provided. Under this law, a person who is a non-Israeli national has no rights in their sound recordings that were not published for the first time in Israel, unless the person is a national of country that has an agreement with Israel concerning sound recordings. In the case of the United States, the Israeli government promulgated an order which implements a 1950 bilateral agreement between Israel and the United States which does protect U.S. sound recordings. The term of protection for sound recordings is 50 years; for other works, it is the lifetime of the author plus 70 years.
Copyright law in Israel also falls short of certain protections that have become common in the copyright laws of developed countries including, protection of “technological protection measures,” “rights management information,” provisions related to internet service provider liability and safe harbors and parallel import protection. Israel has also not acceded to the “WIPO Internet Treaties,” however the Ministry of Justice indicated it is currently reviewing the treaties and anticipates significant progress this year toward accession.
It is government policy to encourage increased competition through market liberalization and deregulation, but tax, labor, health, and safety laws can be impediments to the foreign investor. Although the current trend is towards deregulation, Israel's bureaucracy can still be difficult to navigate, especially for the foreign investor unfamiliar with the system. It is important that potential investors get approvals or other commitments made by regulatory officials in writing before proceeding, rather than relying on unofficial oral promises.
Israel is a signatory to the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA), which covers most Israeli government entities and government-owned corporations. Most of the country’s open international public tenders are published in the local press. However, government-owned corporations make extensive use of selective tendering procedures. In addition, the lack of transparency in the public procurement process discourages U.S. companies from participating in major projects and disadvantages those that choose to compete. Enforcement of the public procurement laws and regulations is not consistent.
The discovery, by an American-Israeli consortium, of substantial offshore natural gas resources in Israel in 2009 and 2010 has created major investment opportunities in this sector and a few firms, including U.S. companies, are making significant investments. As Israel moves toward becoming a significant producer, the Israeli government is developing new regulations to oversee the sector, ensure competition, attract investment, and achieve broader energy policy goals. This has created some uncertainty for investors as taxation levels, licensing requirements and restrictions, and other issues that impact investor decisions have been subject to significant change
Credit is ostensibly allocated according to market terms. However up to 70% of credit in Israel is issued to a handful of individuals and corporate entities, some of whom own controlling interests in banks. Furthermore, the primary profit centers for banks are various consumer banking fees, i.e. credit is given on preferential terms. Various credit instruments are available to the private sector, and foreign investors can receive credit on the local market. Legal, regulatory, and accounting systems are transparent and conform to international norms, although the prevalence of inflation-adjusted accounting means that there are differences from U.S. accounting principles.
There are five major banks in Israel. Bank Leumi and Bank Hapoalim, the two largest banks, dominate. Ranked third is Israel Discount Bank, and then there are two other medium sized banks. Bank Leumi had assets of USD 88 billion at the end of 2010, Bank Hapoalim had assets of USD 86 billion, followed by Israel Discount Bank with assets of USD 50 billion at the end of 2010. Israeli banks have all been privatized except for Leumi, with 6 percent of shares remaining in the hands of the State of Israel.
Many Israeli firms are not publicly traded and are controlled through integrated holding Companies, having a “pyramid” like structure. In the case of publicly traded firms where ownership is widely dispersed, the practice of "cross-shareholding" and "stable shareholder" arrangements to prevent mergers and acquisitions is common, but not directed in particular at preventing potential foreign investment. Hostile takeovers are a virtually unknown phenomenon in Israel, given the high concentration of ownership of most firms.
Israel has no laws or regulations regarding the adoption by private firms of articles of incorporation or association that limit or prohibit foreign investment, participation, or control.
The Government Companies Authority (GCA) was established and operates under the Government Companies Law. This is an auxiliary unit of the Ministry of Finance. The GCA is the administrative agency for state-owned companies, in charge of supervision, privatization and implementation of structural changes in these companies.
The GCA oversees some 100 companies, including commercial and noncommercial companies, government subsidiaries and companies under mixed government-private ownership. Among these companies are some of the biggest and most complex in the Israeli economy, such as: The Israel Electric Corporation, Israel Aerospace Industries, Rafael Advanced Defense Systems, Israel Postal Company, Mekorot Israel National Water Company, Israel Natural Gas Lines, the Ashdod, Haifa and Eilat Port Companies, Israel Railways, Petroleum and Energy Infrastructures, Israel National Roads Company, advanced study funds, housing companies and more.
There are no sovereign wealth funds (SWF) in Israel. However, active consideration of establishing a SWF in light of the discoveries of major offshore natural gas fields is underway
Maala–Business for Social Responsibility: http://www.maala.org.il/eng/home/about/01/default.asp?ContentID=333
Israel is a parliamentary democracy with a stable domestic environment. Nonetheless, the unresolved conflict between Israel and the Palestinians means that the potential for politically inspired violence and terrorism exists. The State Department web site provides updated information on travel advisories: http://travel.state.gov Israel signed peace treaties with Egypt (1979) and Jordan (1994), and its borders with the two countries are open. The borders with Lebanon and Syria are closed, and the potential for violent incidents remains, the most recent example being the 2007 conflict with Hizbullah.
Bribery and other forms of corruption are illegal under several Israeli laws and Civil Service regulations. Israel became a signatory to the OECD Bribery convention in November 2008 and became a full member of the OECD in May 2010. Israel is ranked 25th out of the 34 OECD members. There are several NGOs that focus on public sector ethics. Transparency International has a local chapter in Israel. Israel was ranked 36th in Transparency International’s 2011 Corruption Perceptions Index, down from 30th place in 2010.
Corruption, including bribery, raises the costs and risks of doing business. Corruption has a corrosive impact on both market opportunities overseas for U.S. companies and the broader business climate. It also deters international investment, stifles economic growth and development, distorts prices, and undermines the rule of law.
It is important for U.S. companies, irrespective of their size, to assess the business climate in the relevant market in which they will be operating or investing, and to have an effective compliance program or measures to prevent and detect corruption, including foreign bribery. U.S. individuals and firms operating or investing in foreign markets should take the time to become familiar with the relevant anticorruption laws of both the foreign country and the United States in order to properly comply with them, and where appropriate, they should seek the advice of legal counsel.
The U.S. Government seeks to level the global playing field for U.S. businesses by encouraging other countries to take steps to criminalize their own companies’ acts of corruption, including bribery of foreign public officials, by requiring them to uphold their obligations under relevant international conventions. A U. S. firm that believes a competitor is seeking to use bribery of a foreign public official to secure a contract should bring this to the attention of appropriate U.S. agencies, as noted below.
U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: In 1977, the United States enacted the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), which makes it unlawful for a U.S. person, and certain foreign issuers of securities, to make a corrupt payment to foreign public officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business for or with, or directing business to, any person. The FCPA also applies to foreign firms and persons who take any act in furtherance of such a corrupt payment while in the United States. For more detailed information on the FCPA, see the FCPA Lay-Person’s Guide at:
Other Instruments: It is U.S. Government policy to promote good governance, including host country implementation and enforcement of anti-corruption laws and policies pursuant to their obligations under international agreements. Since enactment of the FCPA, the United States has been instrumental to the expansion of the international framework to fight corruption. Several significant components of this framework are the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions (OECD Antibribery Convention), the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UN Convention), the Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OAS Convention), the Council of Europe Criminal and Civil Law Conventions, and a growing list of U.S. free trade agreements. Israel is party to OECD Anti-bribery Convention, the UN Convention, but generally all countries prohibit the bribery and
solicitation of their public officials.
OECD Antibribery Convention: The OECD Antibribery Convention entered into force in February 1999. As of December 2010, there are 38 parties to the Convention including the United States (see http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/59/13/40272933.pdf). Major exporters China, India, and Russia are not parties, although the U.S. Government strongly endorses their eventual accession to the Convention. The Convention obligates the Parties to criminalize bribery of foreign public officials in the conduct of international business. The United States meets its international obligations under the OECD Anti-bribery Convention through the U.S. FCPA. Israel has adopted the Convention.
UN Convention: The UN Anticorruption Convention entered into force on December 14, 2005, and there are 144 parties to it as of December 2010
(see http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories.html). The UN Convention is the first global comprehensive international anticorruption agreement. The UN Convention requires countries to establish criminal and other offences to cover a wide range of acts of corruption. The UN Convention goes beyond previous anticorruption instruments, covering a broad range of issues ranging from basic forms of corruption such as bribery and solicitation, embezzlement, trading in influence to the concealment and laundering of the proceeds of corruption. The Convention contains transnational business bribery provisions that are functionally similar to those in the OECD Anti-bribery Convention and contains provisions on private sector auditing and books and records requirements. Other provisions address matters such as prevention, international cooperation, and asset recovery. Israel has signed and ratified the convention.
OAS Convention: In 1996, the Member States of the Organization of American States (OAS) adopted the first international anticorruption legal instrument, the Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OAS Convention), which entered into force in March 1997. The OAS Convention, among other things, establishes a set of preventive measures against corruption provides for the criminalization of certain acts of corruption, including transnational bribery and illicit enrichment, and contains a series of provisions to strengthen the cooperation between its States Parties in areas such as mutual legal assistance and technical cooperation. As of December 2009, the OAS Convention has 33 parties (see http://www.oas.org/juridico/english/Sigs/b-58.html) Israel is neither a member of the OAS or signatory to the Convention.
Council of Europe Criminal Law and Civil Law Conventions: Many European countries are parties to either the Council of Europe (CoE) Criminal Law Convention on Corruption, the Civil Law Convention, or both. The Criminal Law Convention requires criminalization of a wide range of national and transnational conduct, including bribery, money-laundering, and account offenses. It also incorporates provisions on liability of legal persons and witness protection. The Civil Law Convention includes provisions on compensation for damage relating to corrupt acts, whistleblower protection, and validity of contracts, inter alia. The Group of States against Corruption (GRECO) was established in 1999 by the CoE to monitor compliance with these and related anticorruption standards. Currently, GRECO comprises 46 member States (45 European
countries and the United States). As of December 2009, the Criminal Law Convention has 43 parties and the Civil Law Convention has 34 (see www.coe.int/greco.) Israel is not a signatory.
Free Trade Agreements: While it is U.S. Government policy to include anticorruption provisions in free trade agreements (FTAs) that it negotiates with its trading partners, the anticorruption provisions have evolved over time. The most recent FTAs negotiated now require trading partners to criminalize “active bribery” of public officials (offering bribes to any public official must be made a criminal offense, both domestically and trans-nationally) as well as domestic “passive bribery” (solicitation of a bribe by a domestic official). All U.S. FTAs may be found at the U.S. Trade Representative Website:
http://www.ustr.gov/trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements. Israel has a free trade agreement (FTA) in place with the United States, which came into force in 1985. More information can be found at www.ustr.gov/trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements.
Local Laws: U.S. firms should familiarize themselves with local anticorruption laws, and, where appropriate, seek legal counsel. While the U.S. Department of Commerce cannot provide legal advice on local laws, the Department’s U.S. Commercial Service can provide assistance with navigating the host country’s legal system and obtaining a list of local legal counsel.
Assistance for U.S. Businesses: The U.S. Department of Commerce offers several services to aid U.S. businesses seeking to address business-related corruption issues. For example, the U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service can provide services that may assist U.S. companies in conducting their due diligence as part of the company’s overarching compliance program when choosing business partners or agents overseas. The U.S. Foreign and Commercial Service can be reached directly through its offices in every major U.S. and foreign city, or through its Website at www.export.gov. The Departments of Commerce and State provide worldwide support for qualified U.S. companies bidding on foreign government contracts through the Commerce
Department’s Advocacy Center and State’s Office of Commercial and Business Affairs. Problems, including alleged corruption by foreign governments or competitors, encountered by U.S. companies in seeking such foreign business opportunities, can be brought to the attention of appropriate U.S. government officials, including local embassy personnel and through the Department of Commerce Trade Compliance Center “Report A Trade Barrier” Website at tcc.export.gov/Report_a_Barrier/index.asp.
Guidance on the U.S. FCPA: The Department of Justice’s (DOJ) FCPA Opinion Procedure enables U.S. firms and individuals to request a statement of the Justice Department’s present enforcement intentions under the anti-bribery provisions of the FCPA regarding any proposed business conduct. The details of the opinion procedure are available on DOJ’s Fraud Section Website at www.justice.gov/criminal/fraud/fcpa. Although the Department of Commerce has no enforcement role with respect to the FCPA, it supplies general guidance to U.S. exporters who have questions about the FCPA and about international developments concerning the FCPA. For further information, see the Office of the Chief Counsel for International Counsel, U.S. Department of Commerce, Website, at http://www.ogc.doc.gov/trans_anti_bribery.html.
More general information on the FCPA is available at the Websites listed below. Exporters and investors should be aware that generally all countries prohibit the bribery of their public officials, and prohibit their officials from soliciting bribes under domestic laws. Most countries are required to criminalize such bribery and other acts of corruption by virtue of being parties to various international conventions discussed above.
Some useful resources for individuals and companies regarding combating corruption in global markets include the following:
Israel has protection of investment agreements with Albania, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, El Salvador, Estonia, Ethiopia, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, India, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, , Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Thailand, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uruguay, Uzbekistan,.
Israel has agreements with South Africa and Ukraine pending ratification. It is in negotiations with Macedonia, Peru and Vietnam.
OPIC is involved in several small projects in Israel and also finances projects sponsored by U.S. investors in Israel, but not in the Golan Heights. Israel is a member of the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA).
There are about 3.2 million people in the labor force in Israel. Highly skilled and well educated, the Israeli labor force is the economy’s major asset. More than 40% of the work force has more than 13 years of education and over 22% have 16 or more years of education. More than 30% of university students specialize in fields with high industrial R&D potential, including engineering, mathematics, physical sciences, and medicine. According to the Investment Promotion Center, there are more than 135 scientists out of every 100,000 workers, the highest in the world. The rapid growth of Israel's high-tech industries in the late 1990s increased the demand for workers with specialized skills. However, in the last few years Israel consistently ranks at the end of the list of Western countries in international student assessment tests.
Unemployment in the third quarter of 2011 was 5.6%, a historic low. Average unemployment was 6% in 2008, increased to 7.5% in 2009 as a result of the slowdown in the economy, and as a result of a return to growth at the end of 2009 and in 2010, declined to 6.7% in 2010.
According to Bank of Israel statistics, there were was an increase in the number of foreign workers from 193,000 in 2007 to 211,000 in 2008 and further increased to more than 220,000 in 2009 and 2010. There were 55,700 Palestinian workers in 2009 and 60,600 in 2010.
The national labor federation, the Histadrut, organizes about one-third of Israeli workers. Collective bargaining negotiations in the public sector take place between Histadrut and representatives from the Ministry of Finance. The number of strikes has declined significantly as the public sector has gotten smaller. However, strikes remain a common and viable negotiating vehicle in many difficult wage negotiations.
Israel strictly observes the Friday afternoon to Saturday afternoon Sabbath and special permits must be obtained from the government authorizing Sabbath employment. At the age of 18, most Israelis are required to perform 2-3 years of national service. Until their mid 40’s, Israeli males are required to perform about a month military reserve duty annually, during which time they receive compensation from national insurance companies.
Israel has one free trade zone, the Red Sea port city of Eilat. There are three ports in Israel: Haifa Port (including Kishon), the Port of Ashdod and the Port of Eilat. The GOI has plans to expand and upgrade the major ports of Haifa (in the north) and Ashdod (in the center). There is good quality warehousing including cold storage in all of the major ports and trade zones, but current capacity may become inadequate in the face of growing demand.
Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) totaled USD 10.9 billion in 2008, USD 4.4 billion in 2009 and USD 5.1 billion in 2010. Foreign direct investment in the third quarter of 2011 totaled USD 2.3 billion.