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Leading Sectors for U.S. Export and Investment

Commercial Service Spain Best Prospect Sectors

Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technologies and Services # 1

Overview Return to top

Unit: USD millions

 

2009

2010 (estimated)

2011 (estimated)

2012

(estimated)

Total Market Size

12,706

13,565

14,617

15,641

Total Local Production

9,723

10,404

11,236

12,023

Total Exports

2,013

2,134

2,284

2,443

Total Imports

4,996

5,295

5,665

6,061

Imports from the U.S.

1,092

1,136

1,193

1,253

Exchange Rate: 1 USD

0.718

0.754

0.754

0.754

Data Sources:

Total Local Production: unofficial estimates

Total Exports: unofficial estimates

Total Imports: unofficial estimates

Imports from U.S.: unofficial estimates

Although the economic crisis worsened in Spain during 2010, the consumption of electricity increased by 2.9 percent, in contrast to 2009, when there was a sharp decrease of 4.6 percent. The demand for electrical energy in Spain was 259.940 GWh, according to estimated figures released in December 2010 from the Spanish grid operator Red Eléctrica de España (REE). Renewable energy covered 35 percent of 2010 demand, six percent more than in 2009, mainly due to the increase of hydrological electricity production. Hydrological energy generation increased 59 percent, covering 14 percent of demand, whereas in 2009 it only covered 9 percent. Another important factor was wind energy generation, which increased by18.5 percent and covered 16 percent of demand over the previous year. The increased production in both hydrologic and wind energy was the result of atmospheric conditions that caused more rain and wind than in previous years.

On the other hand, coal and combined cycle production decreased 34 and 17 percent respectively in 2010. As a result, carbon emissions caused by power generation were cut down by 28.7 percent in 2010. However, renewable energy generation steadily increased, accounting for 46.2 percent of total electricity produced. Within renewable energy applications, solar energy contributed to 2 percent of yearly demand. 

Average electricity demand in Spain is projected to increase approximately 1.47 percent in 2011, similar to 2008 levels. Conventional gas demand is projected to increase by 2.37 percent in 2011.

According to Eurostat, the EU statistics office, Spain imports more than 80 percent of the energy that it consumes, and it is the seventh most energy-dependent country in Europe, after Cyprus, Malta, Luxemburg, Ireland, Italy and Portugal. The average dependency on energy imports in the 27 EU countries is approximately 54 percent. The only EU country that exports is Denmark. Among the less import-dependent countries are Poland and the UK.

Eurostat estimates that Spain consumes 145 million Toe (ton of oil equivalent) with nearly 125 million Toe originating from foreign sources.

The Spanish Government estimates that this energy dependency will decrease by 75 percent in 2012 thanks to a drop in energy demand, combined with the trends of greater energy efficiency and wider usage of renewable energy. To reach these objectives, they have prepared the Energy Saving and Efficiency Plan 2008-2012 (PA4+), with the objective of reducing the energy expended per unit of GDP. The Plan consists of a set of concrete measures which specifically target seven sectors: industry, transport, construction, public services, household and office automation equipment, agriculture, and energy transformation.

The challenge Spanish regulators face is balancing the country's energy needs while keeping Spain's carbon-emissions commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. The solution for keeping the lights on in the fifth-largest electricity market in the EU is born of necessity and is immensely practical: build high efficiency, combined-cycle natural gas plants and significantly increase Spain's wind-power portfolio.

Sub-Sector Best Prospects Return to top

As the market becomes increasingly competitive, joint ventures and partnerships will play an important role in capturing market share and in injecting the necessary capital and state-of-the-art technology. In order to meet the country’s growing energy demand, Spanish government officials predict that companies will spend a total of 6.5 billion Euros (USD 8.5 billion) during the 2002-2012 timeframe.

The current Energy Saving and Efficiency Plan 2008-2012 (PA4+) forms part of the EU Energy Efficiency Action Plan. The objective of the PA4+ is not only to achieve the commitments set out in Directive 2006/32 EC, which defines a framework for a joint effort to achieve energy savings of nine percent in 2016, but also to meet the more ambitious target, included in the decision of the European Council dated March 9, 2007, namely to achieve savings of 20 percent by 2020.

The strategic targets of this Plan include:

  • To acknowledge energy saving and energy efficiency as a tool for economic growth and social welfare.
  • To create appropriate conditions for knowledge of energy saving and energy efficiency to become more widespread and better developed in society, in particular as regards the measures in all the national strategies and in the Spanish Climate Change Strategy.
  • To encourage competition in the market under the guiding principle of energy saving and efficiency.
  • To strengthen the position of Spain at the forefront of energy saving and efficiency.

It is calculated that the volume of the energy efficiency market - including consultancy services and the energy services companies (the ESCs) - presently amounts to some 100 million Euros per year in Spain. Taking what has happened in other markets as a reference point, all the forecasts point towards this business taking off in Spain in coming years. In Europe, the ESC’s in Germany, Austria, the United Kingdom and France, generated annual sales in excess of 6.5 billion Euros (USD 8.6 billion). In the United States, which leads the business with a turnover of USD 6 billion, the ESCOs (equivalent to the Spanish ESCs) generated 60,000 jobs.

The forecasts show that in Spain, energy efficiency services will grow until they exceed 2 billion Euros (USD 2.6 billion) in the next five years, generating close to 20,000 jobs.

Energy efficiency allows companies to improve their energy consumption (obtaining a better yield from the resources used and reducing their requirements at the same time), while maintaining utmost quality of service. These programs allow CO2 emissions to be reduced by 40 percent, and at the same time deliver 10 percent of net energy cost to savings. Opportunities will emerge for building energy efficiency and in the areas of transportation and industry. The new legal framework being developed in Spain encourages the use of solar energy devices in buildings and houses to guarantee the minimum coverage of power demanded.

Electric utilities are the main promoters of renewable-energy projects in Spain, since they possess the resources and technology necessary to develop them. Federal, regional and local governments are also very active in renewable energy development and these organizations offer incentives to attract the investment which they consider beneficial in economic, political, social and environmental terms.

Opportunities Return to top

The challenge of the plans mentioned above is to make the renewable-energy sector attractive to private investors, to maintain the interest that has already been created in some sectors, and to expand it to other areas of the energy industry.

Business opportunities exist for U.S. firms in the Spanish renewable energy and energy efficiency market with state-of-the-art technology and services. Strategic alliances with Spanish companies can also give U.S. companies access to Latin America and other foreign markets as well. U.S. small and medium- sized companies should know that doing business with Spanish energy companies can open up opportunities in other industries, such as environmental technology, that are closely linked with energy.

The financing of the Energy Efficiency Action Plan for 2008-2012 is based essentially on investments in the private sector and in public services. The investment provided during the Plan’s implementation will be almost USD 31 billion. Buildings make up 60.7 percent of the investment effort of the Plan, followed by 9.0 percent for equipment and 8.5 percent for the transport sector. This could pose opportunities to U.S. firms that provide energy saving and efficiency equipment and services for the above-mentioned sectors.

Web Resources Return to top

Spanish Ministry of Industry: http://www.mityc.es/energia/en-US/Paginas/Index.aspx

Comisión Nacional de la Energía (National Energy Commision - Regulator): http://www.eng.cne.es/cne/Home

Instituto para la Diversificación y el Ahorro de Energía IDAE: (Institute for Energy Diversification and Saving):

http://www.idae.es/index.php/mod.indice/mem.i

Red Eléctrica de España (Electricity Transmission and Operations): http://www.ree.es/ingles/home.asp

Spanish Association of Renewable Energy Producers:

http://www.appa.es/index.php

Spanish Utilities Association: http://www.unesa.es/index.html

Spanish Energy Sector: http://energuia.com/

EU Energy Sector:

http://ec.europa.eu/index_en.htm

http://www.aquieuropa.com/

Trade Events:

GENERA: http://www.genera.ifema.es/ferias/genera/default_i.html

MATELEC: http://www.ifema.es/web/ferias/matelec/default_i.html

Customs duties: http://www.taric.es/

Commercial Service Spain: http://www.buyusa.gov/spain/en/

Energy Sector Specialist: Carmen Adrada, Tel: +34 91 3081542, Fax: +34 91 563 0859, E-mail: Carmen.Adrada@mail.doc.gov

Green Technologies and Services # 2

Overview Return to top

Unit: USD millions

Green Technologies and Services

2009

2010

(estimated)

2011 (estimated)

2012

(estimated)

Total Market Size

26,744

28,806

30,625

31,543

Total Local Production

22,958

24,565

26,130

26,914

Total Exports

3,101

3,128

3,316

3,416

Total Imports

6,887

7,369

7,811

8,045

Imports from the U.S.

2,130

2,236

2,304

2,350

Exchange Rate: 1 USD

0.718

0.754

0.754

0.754

Data source:

Total Local Production: unofficial estimates

Total Exports: unofficial estimates

Total Imports: unofficial estimates

Imports from U.S.: unofficial estimates

Two major global challenges - the financial crisis and climate change - make it urgent to rally the world behind the idea of a “green new deal” or a “global green recovery.” A report published by the Spanish Ministry for the Environment and Rural and Marine Affairs shows that Spain’s environmental profile has both positive and negative characteristics. On the positive side there is the increased use of renewable energy or the amount of water saved. On the other hand, negative factors include excessive use of the road transport system, the increased use of chemical fertilizers in agriculture, or increased air contamination in large cities. Current environmental issues in Spain include pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas, water quality and quantity nationwide, air pollution, deforestation and desertification.

The latest available data states that the environmental sector moves 10.82 billion Euros (USD 14.35 billion) in Spain, equivalent to a 3.2 percent share of the worldwide market and 8.9 percent of the EU market. It also represents 1.6 percent of Spanish GDP. The major Spanish multinationals in the construction and civil engineering sector are active in both the waste and water treatment sectors of the environmental industry. It is estimated that there are 2,000 companies in this Spanish sector, and most of them are SMEs. From these firms, 88 percent use proprietary technology – a percentage which has remained stable in recent years – and the other 12 percent use foreign technology, principally from Europe, with Germany as leading supplier of environmental technology. It is estimated that employment in the green tech and environmental sector in Spain increased from 158,500 jobs in 2008 to 531,000 in 2009. “Green” employment has increased 235 percent in the last decade in Spain.

The environmental sector is highly regulated in the EU. This has impacted Spain forcing public and private companies to follow environmental regulations while resulting in a strong development of the environment market. Spain has adopted environmental plans and developed ecological laws and regulations in line with EU environmental directives since 1993. In addition to the central government, 17 Spanish autonomous or regional governments issue environmental laws and regulations that are mandatory for their territories. The regional governments incorporate laws issued by the central government as well as EU directives.

Spain is ahead of countries such as the United Kingdom, Greece, Portugal, Ireland and Italy in recycling and using alternatives to landfill. On the other hand, the Internal Market Directorate General of the European Commission reported that Spain ranks as one of the EU markets lagging the most in applying EU directions. On top of that, Spain is also among the EU countries with a higher number of formal complaints presented to the EU for infringing the EU environmental legislation. This then shows that there is still lot to do in the areas of environmental protection and remediation, opening up opportunities to U.S. green technologies and services firms.

Sub-Sector Best Prospects Return to top

Demand for green equipment, technology and services have decreased due to the economic crisis. Nevertheless, environmental concern is still high and implementation of environmental regulations and resources allocated during recent years underscore Spain’s commitment to this sector.

The 2007-2015 Integrated National Waste Plan’s objective is to meet judicial obligations. It also states a number of measures to assure proper waste management while initiating programs and projects with real objectives that can be reached during that period of time. The areas covered by the Plan include: urban solid waste, hazardous waste; end of life vehicles, end of life tires, waste water sludge, construction and demolition waste, PCB/PCT, used battery and storage battery waste, electrical and electronic appliance waste, mining waste, agricultural plastic waste, non-hazardous industrial waste, and, soil treatment.

Products and services that could be in demand, identified in the 2007-2015 Integrated National Waste Plan, include:

  • Increase of industrial treatment plants for municipal solid and hazardous waste.
  • New technology to reduce the amount of waste produced as a side effect of current treatment methods.
  • Alternatives to landfill.
  • Selective collection, especially introduction of selective collection at source for urban solid organic waste to improve compost quality.
  • Contaminated soil treatment.
  • New treatment centers and plants for end of life vehicles treatment and tires.
  • Sludge treatment plants and recovery deposits.
  • Waste water treatment plants/facilities.

Opportunities Return to top

Spain market conditions are challenging due to the economic crisis. On the other hand, Spain’s growth over previous years placed even greater pressure on the environment and the use of natural resources. Foreign technology and services can play a significant role in some niche business areas where there is still scope for action especially if ongoing technological and process innovation is essential.

Fines are imposed on contaminating industries through central, regional and local governments. These penalties force Spanish industries to look for environmentally safer technologies and pollution-control equipment to treat emissions and industrial waste. As a result, opportunities exist for U.S. environmental companies in this market.

Areas of opportunity could include advanced technology for treating certain elements of end-of-life vehicles such as glass, plastic, wood, textiles, foam, catalyzers, oils and brake fluid; new ideas for end-of-life tires; plastics treatment, especially agricultural plastics; hazardous waste treatment including hospital waste; soil remediation; small, modular waste water treatment plants for small residential areas or those in protected rural or green belt zones; among others.

Web Resources Return to top

Spanish Ministry of the Environment: http://www.marm.es/index_en.htm

Institute for Energy Saving and Diversification: http://www.idae.es/index.php/mod.indice/mem.i/lang.uk

Fundación Entorno: http://www.fundacionentorno.org/

Ecovidrio (glass recycling organization): http://www.ecovidrio.es/html/home.htm

Center for Hydrographic Studies: http://www.cedex.es/ingles/home.html

Spanish Water Information System (HISPAGUA): http://hispagua.cedex.es/en/index.php

Spanish Desalination and Water Reuse Association (AEDYR): http://www.aedyr.es/index.php

Spanish Association of Environmental Technology Suppliers (AMECMA): http://www.amec.es/amec/ServletControler?accion=homeeng

Ambientum (on-line environmental B2B portal)

http://www.ambientum.com/

Environmental on-line publication:

http://www.infoambiental.es/

Gateway to the European Union: http://europa.eu/index_en.htm

EU on-line news bulletin: http://www.aquieuropa.com/

Commercial Service Spain: http://www.buyusa.gov/spain/en/

Environmental Sector Specialist: Carmen Adrada, Tel: +34 91 3081542, Fax: + 34 91563 0859, e-mail:carmen.adrada@mail.doc.gov

E-Commerce #3

Overview Return to top

Unit: USD thousands

 

2009

2010

2011 (estimated)

2012

(estimated)

Total Market Size

6,137,183

7,251,989

8,252,785

9,223,637

Total Local Production

3,367,601

4,029,178

4,835,013

5,656,966

Total Exports

942,455

1,021,220

1,123,342

1,246,910

Total Imports

3,712,036

4,244,032

4,541,114

4,813,581

Imports from the U.S.

235,286

254,642

272,467

294,264

Exchange Rate: 1 USD

0.718

0.754

0.754

0.754

Total Market Size = (Total Local Production + Total Imports) – (Total Exports)

Data Sources:

Total Local Production: unofficial estimates

Total Exports: unofficial estimates

Total Imports: unofficial estimates

Imports from U.S. unofficial estimates

During 2010, the Spanish e-commerce sector grew significantly, especially in the B2C area. The sector remains highly competitive and offers growth opportunities to U.S. companies.

Factors that will help this trend are increased penetration of broadband internet in Spain and deployment of the Electronic National Identity Document (e-DNI) that will provide all Spaniards with a personal digital identity certificate. Internet penetration in Spain is estimated to be 64 percent, with 25 million users.

Top product categories for online purchases by consumers were travel and hotel, ticket services, electronics, clothing and books. Credit cards were the most widely used payment method. The data offered on the summary table is actually closely linked to statistics developed by the Spanish Telecommunications Market Commission, based on credit card payment information for e-commerce transactions.

Online supermarkets linked to a physical chain, such as El Corte Ingles and Carrefour Online, are experiencing strong growth. Other major retailers such as Zara have developed their e-commerce platforms in 2010. Leading travel-related websites have gone through considerable consolidation leaving Edreams, Rumbo, Viajar.com and Lastminute.com as leaders in this area.

Sub-Sector Best Prospects Return to top

Demand by consumers in areas such as tourism-related products, e-learning, music and software purchases is significant. Services and products that reach consumers through mobile devices will be growing. E-commerce software solutions for SME´s are also interesting: specific applications include advertising and marketing tools, as well as niche-oriented products/services such as web-based CRM.

Opportunities Return to top

The current exchange rate between the euro and the dollar enhances opportunities for U.S.-based web marketers, especially for the consumer market. As well, the expansion of smart phones and mobile internet broadband is facilitating the distribution of paid content and the access to new services. For a successful presence in the Spanish market, translation to Spanish language is needed, as well as a targeted search engine optimization for Spain.

Amazon.com bought the Spanish internet retailer BuyVip in late 2010, which might generate additional e-commerce activity in 2011 in Spain.

Web Resources Return to top

Spanish Digital Economy Association www.adigital.org

Spanish ICT Association (AETIC) www.ametic.es

Spanish Internet companies Association (ANEI) www.a-nei.org

Expo E-Commerce Trade Show http://2011.expo-ecommerce.com/

Internet promotion entity RED.ES www.red.es

Data Protection Agency: www.agpd.es

Spanish Telecommunication Market Commission www.cmt.es

Secretary of State for Telecommunications and Information Society: http://www.mityc.es/dgdsi

Commercial Service Spain: www.buyusa.gov/spain

E-Commerce Sector Specialist: Jesus Garcia, Tel: +34 91 308 1578,

Fax: +34 91 563 0859, E-mail: jesus.garcia@trade.gov

Aerospace # 4

Overview Return to top

USD thousands

 

2009

2010

2011 (estimated)

2012

(estimated)

Total Market Size

2,731

2,649

2,506

2,622

Total Local Production

5,856

5,680

5,566

5,632

Total Exports

4,538

4,402

4,314

4,358

Total Imports

413

401

393

397

Imports from the U.S.

127

123

120

121

Exchange Rate: 1 USD

0.718

0.754

0.754

0.754

Data Sources: www.tedae.org

Spain’s highly advanced aerospace industry, located primarily in Madrid, the Basque County, and Andalusia, offers excellent opportunities for foreign companies. The aerospace sector has greatly benefited from its recent internationalization; however, Spain still lags behind the two other leading European countries, France and Germany, where the proportion of airports per inhabitant is ten times greater than that of Spain. After the recent merger between British Airways and Iberia, Madrid Barajas Airport is expected to grow almost 20 percent in the next two years. Because of this, efforts in Spain’s aerospace sector are being concentrated on improving Spain’s standing in the infrastructure sphere in order to keep up with its European competitors. Currently the aerospace sector employs 38,000 people in Spain.

Sub-Sector Best Prospects Return to top

Interest is increasing for products related to composite tape-laying machines and fiber placement systems with computer numerical control. Aeronautical products in greatest demand include components for aeronautical software programming, avionics, ground support equipment, and extruded metal products and plastics.

Opportunities Return to top

Spain's aerospace sector is constantly growing and shows greater potential due to increased competition in the Spanish air transport market and demand for new technology. Liberalization of Spain's internal air transport system has resulted in increased interest for these new technologies, creating opportunities for U.S. manufacturers and distributors.

The largest local company, EADS-CASA, has a minority participation in the European consortium Airbus. The Spanish government is trying to increase its participation to 10 percent. In addition to EADS-CASA, there are two other dominant companies in Spain: Aernova, formerly GAMESA, a manufacturer of structural parts for aircraft, and ITP (Industria de Turbo Propulsores, S.A.), an aircraft engine producer. Despite the economic crisis, companies continue to request airline licenses for landing rights from civil aviation authorities. Companies entering the market in recent years include Vueling and Clickair, a low cost carrier created by Iberia, ACS, one of the world’s largest construction/infrastructure companies, and other partners. In 2009 Clickair and Vueling completed a merger into a single entity named Vueling, operating mainly from the Prat Airport in Barcelona. This has increased the total number of airplanes operating in Spain and created steady expansion of the spare-parts market. This trend is expected to continue as regional markets develop.

Marsans, a Spanish proprietary group had to sell its flagship and the third largest airline carrier, SPANAIR, to a group of executives led and supported by the regional government of Catalonia. It has faced very difficult times, with the expropriation of Aerolineas Argentinas by the Argentinean Government. Air Comet, another regional airline, filed for bankruptcy during the peak Christmas season in 2009. This latter situation forced the Spanish government to intervene.

The savings bank, Caja Madrid, recently merged with Valencia’s savings bank Bancaja, forming BanCajaMadrid. Caja Madrid holds approximately 23 percent of the shares of Iberia Airlines after acquiring the shares of BBVA and Logista. It is now the largest single shareholder of the airline and has indicated it does not wish to exceed its current share. Iberia and British Airways merged this year and now they are one of the leading groups in the world under the new name International Airlines Group

To decrease operating costs, some airlines are considering operational leases, opening opportunities for U.S. companies. This service market is expected to increase in the short term. However, U.S. aircraft manufacturers face stiff competition from Airbus and small aircraft manufacturers based in Europe. Currently, local Spanish manufacturers are unable to meet the production demands for parts and components, and are looking to the international market for assistance. Many Spanish sub-contractors are exploring the possibility of forming international agreements to meet increased market demand, offering excellent export opportunities for U.S. companies.

The best entry strategy into the Spanish aviation market is to enter into a partnership with an existing local company, since the Spanish company would act as the representative and provide insight into local markets.

Web Resources Return to top

Spanish Association of Aerospace Industries: www.tedae.org

Foreign Trade Statistics/ Chamber of Commerce: http://aduanas.camaras.org

Commercial Service Spain: www.buyusa.gov/spain

Aircraft Parts & Services Sector Specialist: Carlos Perezminguez, Tel: +34 91 308 1598,

Fax: +34 91 563 0859, e-mail: carlos.perezminguez@trade.gov

Outbound Tourism to the United States #5

Overview Return to top

Total Inbound/Outbound Travelers to/from Spain

2009

2010

2011

(estimated)

2012

(estimated)

Inbound travelers(millions)

Outbound (millions)

52 12

52.7

12.8

53.3

13.4

53.8

13.6

Receipts (USD billions)

Payments (USD billions)

64

15

65

12.5

66

13

66.5

13.4

Outbound Spanish Travel to the U.S.

       

Outbound travelers to the U.S.

Travel Receipts (USD billions)

596,766

1.7*

639,000*

1.8*

651,000

1.84

664,000

1.87

Exchange Rate: 1 USD

0.718

0.754

0.754

0.754

Data Sources:

Spanish Market: IET (Spanish Tourism Institute),

U.S. Market: Dept .of Commerce Office of Travel & Tourism - OTTI/USDOC.

* Year-end statistics not available. Unofficial estimates based on input from various sources.

Spain is not only one of the world’s leading tourism destinations; it is also now an important source of outbound tourists to a number of countries including the United States.

The sector is a major component of the Spanish economy, accounting for 11 percent of the country´s GDP. In terms of employment, the sector represents 12 percent of the active population. Figures released in late January by the Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Tourism, indicate that the number of visitors had increased over 2009, although receipts dropped by 4 percent.

Spanish arrivals in the U.S. have increased over 121 percent during the 2001 – 2009 period. Spain is the United States’ 6th largest European market and 11th largest international market, with approximately 639,000 arrivals estimated in 2010. This figure represents a seven percent increase over 2009 when the number of visitors fell by nine percent.

Conservative estimates for 2011 show Spanish arrivals to the United States in the 650,000 range. Within Western Europe, in terms of the number of travelers to the United States, Spain ranks sixth behind the U.K., Germany, France, Italy, and the Netherlands.

European destinations accounted for 76.4 percent of trips made outside of Spain, The most popular destinations are France, Portugal and Italy, followed by the U.K., Andorra and Germany. Long distance travel accounts for approximately 7.5 percent of foreign travel. The most popular long haul destinations are the United States, followed by Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador and Brazil.

According to U.S. Dept. of Commerce (TINET) statistics, Spanish travel habits are as follows: vacation trips 63 percent; visits to friends and relatives 16 percent; and business 8 percent. Although a breakdown of 2010 statistics are not available as of the writing of this report, business travel increased in 2010. More than 60 percent of Spaniards traveling abroad do so with their families.

The percentage of reservations made through agencies continues to decline, however, 11 percent of visitors claim to use pre-paid package when traveling to the United States. During 2009, the number of travelers who made their arrangements directly increased substantially. Top product categories for online purchases by consumers were travel and hotel ticket services.

The regions that generate most U.S.-bound travelers are Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia and the Basque Country in the north of the country.

Sub-Sector Best Prospects Return to top

The best prospects continue the pattern of previous years. Recent seasons have seen a substantial increase in travel during the ski season, particularly to the Colorado area. A favorable exchange rate was an important reason for this increase, although growing sophistication on the part of the Spanish client is also a factor.

The most popular state destinations continue to be New York, Florida, California, Colorado (ski + drive), followed by Arizona with its Grand Canyon, and Nevada with Las Vegas. Additionally, Hawaii, Alaska, Washington, D.C., Boston, Massachusetts, National Parks, theme parks and Indian reservations are attractive destinations. Destinations with easy access to golf courses are also starting to be of interest.

Opportunities Return to top

The close commercial ties between the two countries and the increasing awareness and curiosity about the United States in general, particularly among the younger generation, make Spain a market of opportunity for a wide variety of U.S. destinations.

Industry sources maintain that the increased use of Internet and online purchases combine to make online travel arrangements very attractive.

The new routes will also have an impact. There are now direct flights to Boston, New York, Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, Atlanta, Dallas, Chicago and Miami. Iberia Airlines will start a direct flight to Los Angeles in March 2011 while U.S. Airways also has plans to inaugurate a new flight to Charlotte, N.C.

The key to success for U.S. operators and destinations is promotion. The increased competition among local travel industry companies has led to aggressive campaigns, not only in price but also in more varied product offerings. This renewed interest in broadening the range of options available to the traveler provides a good opportunity for U.S. entities to showcase destinations with special unique features as well as their services and products. Of special interest are spin-offs from the principal gateway cities, outdoor activities, and the National Parks.

U.S. destinations should actively promote themselves among the tour operators and the travel press in this promising market.

The VisitUSA Committee also focuses on creating greater awareness and knowledge of the United States and promoting U.S. destinations. The United States Commercial Service in Spain (CS Spain) and the VisitUSA Committee collaborate closely in promoting the opportunities of the Spanish travel market to selected U.S. destinations. They look forward to working with motivated U.S. destinations to arrange FAM trips, workshops, and seminars to assist Spanish tour operators, travel agents, and the travel press to learn more about U.S. destinations.

Web Resources Return to top

Spanish Tourism Institute: www.iet.tourspain.es

Dept. of Commerce Office of Travel & Tourism Industries: http://www.tinet.ita.doc.gov

Spanish Ministry of Industry, Commerce & Tourism: http://www.mcx.es/turismo/default.htm

VisitUSA Committee: www.visitusa-spain.com

Trade Events:

  • FITUR. The Commercial Services supports a U.S. Pavilion at this annual Travel and Tourism Fair, held in Madrid in January (Jan. 20-24, 2012). www.ifema.es

Website: hosteltur.es: http://www.hosteltur.com/

Daily Press: Nexotur, www.nexotur.es

Commercial Service Spain: www.buyusa.gov/spain

Tourism Sector Specialist: Helen Crowley, Tel: +34 91 308 1548, Fax: +34 91 563 0859

E-mail: helen.crowley@mail.doc.gov

Biotechnology #6

Overview Return to top

Unit: USD thousands

Biotechnology

2009

2010 (estimated)

2011 (estimated)

2012

(estimated)

Turnover

1,119,000

1,215,000

1,385,000

1,578,000

No. of firms with primary biotech focus

330

396

435

478

Exchange rate: 1 USD

0.718

0.754

0.754

0.754

Data Sources:

1) Unofficial estimates – Genoma Espana, ICEX

The Spanish biotech sector is still in the expansion phase with companies growing at a faster rate than in many European countries.

Detailed trade statistics for this sector are not available. Figures provided above and throughout the report are unofficial and are based on input from the main sector organizations Asebio (Spanish Biotech Association) and Genoma España (Spanish Genoma Institute) as well as ICEX, the Spanish Foreign Trade Institute.

Of the 942 Spanish companies that reported having biotech related activities in 2008, approximately 275 had an exclusive biotech focus. The number of Spanish companies stating they are involved with biotechnology doubled from 2005 to 2008. Likewise, the number of companies whose main and/or exclusive activity is biotechnology experienced a dramatic spike, increasing from 120 in 2005 to 275 in 2008. Employment, both direct and indirect, was reported at 104,000 for 2008 and estimated at over 110,000 for 2010. Employment in the public and private R&D sectors was estimated at 21,210 for 2008, almost double the number of personnel employed in 2005. Seventy-five percent of the R&D employees are public sector researchers.

In most cases, the companies are start up ventures that either are academic spin-offs or are the result of diversification initiatives into more innovative areas by consolidated companies.

In terms of scientific production, Spain produced 3.2 percent of all the biosciences scientific articles worldwide in 2008 and 8.5 percent of the European scientific production. According to a report prepared by Genoma España, the number of Spanish scientific articles and publications increased by 47 percent from 2000 to 2008, with an average annual growth rate of six percent. Growth in this category in the EU-15 and the world during the same period was around eight percent, with an average annual growth rate of one percent.

Funding is a major obstacle for companies in the biotech sector. This has had a major impact on the way Spanish companies operate and develop new products. The majority of companies that focus on product development find it difficult to maintain a sizeable patent portfolio, while others prefer to focus on providing services rather than product development.

Public subsidies for the sector have been increasing steadily over the last decade, with research in the human health and agro-food sectors benefitting the most. The Ministry of Science and Innovation was created in 2008 and has become the main public source of funding for the biotech sector. The autonomous regions are also increasing their involvement in the sector.

It is estimated that total investment and public expenditure in biotechnology (R&D, infrastructure, maintenance, buildings, personnel, etc.) surpassed Euros 1.3 billion (USD 1.7 billion) in 2008, up from Euros 750 million (USD 995 million) in 2005. The biotech sector received USD 146 million for R&D from the Ministry of Science and Innovation 2009. This amount represented 5.6 percent of the total amount disbursed by the Ministry in grants.

Venture capital investment has been slow to take off in Spain. Investment during 2005-2008 was USD 162 million, five times the total invested during 2000-2004. It is estimated that the sector received USD 108 million in 2009, although approximately 50 percent of that amount went to a minority of companies. A positive change over the last two years is that more well-known international funds are focusing on the Spanish sector.

The number of biotech contracts between universities and companies increased by 100 percent during 2000-2008, while the value of these contracts more than doubled to approximately USD 2.4 billion during the same period. Contracts valued at USD 85 million were signed in 2008.

Sub-Sector Best Prospects Return to top

Sector sources report that the focus of companies is basically as follows:

Human health applications

(particularly in therapeutics and diagnostics) - 40 percent

Food sector - 25 percent

Animal health and aquaculture - 20 percent

Agriculture and forest production - 19 percent

Environmental applications - 18 percent

Other industrial applications - 13 percent

A joint report by the Association of Biotechnological Companies in Spain (ASEBIO), the Institute of Foreign Commerce (ICEX), and the John Hopkins University has highlighted a notable increase in the drug-discovery and development areas of the Spanish biotech sector. Of the 275 biotech companies in Spain, 41 were identified as having 198 different products. The majority of products referred to in the study were at the preclinical phase (56.6 percent), with the remainder at Phases I, II and III of clinical research trials.

Some notable achievements have been made in the marine biotech area, particularly in the area of oncology.

Opportunities Return to top

Opportunities exist primarily for joint ventures, alliances and/or collaboration in research, as well the development of products and services inherent to a growing biotech sector.

Approximately 35 percent of the biotech companies had some sort of international activity in 2009. This was an increase of five percent over the previous year. Internationalization has become a priority for Spanish biotech companies, going from sixth to first place for their priorities in 2010. Spanish companies are present in a total of 26 countries, mostly concentrated in the European Union (37.5 percent) and Latin America (33 percent). Sixteen percent of the companies are present in the United States. However, the majority of companies (73 percent) participating in an international alliance have not yet been established abroad, thus confirming that international alliances are only a first step in the internationalization process. The regional governments are key to the development of bio-clusters in their respective regions.

The regions with the most biotech-focused companies are Madrid (22.18 percent), Catalonia (21.4 percent) and Andalusia (13.23 percent). Together they account for slightly more than 50 percent of the national total.

Fifty-eight new companies focusing exclusively on biotech activities were created in 2009. The region with the highest number of new companies was Andalusia with 26 percent, followed by Catalonia with 24 percent, the Community of Valencia with 9 percent, the Community of Madrid with 7 percent, while the regions of Castilla-Leon, Asturias, the Basque Region and Aragon each had 5 percent.

Valencia is also making interesting strides with growth in the biotech sector. Biotech companies in Valencia have doubled in recent years and now account for approximately 20 percent of the sector´s turnover. Of these companies, bio-energy accounts for 27 percent of the activity, 32 percent are in the food sector and the development of bio-fertilizers, and 33 percent focus on red biotech.

A good venue to meet with representatives from the Spanish biotech sector is the annual BIO event in the United States. The Spanish exhibition area at BIO 2010 in Chicago, organized by the Spanish Biotech Association, ASEBIO, was one of the largest foreign pavilions at last year´s event. Plans are to have a similar presence at BIO 2011, which is scheduled to take place in Washington, D.C., June 27 -30, 2011.

Web Resources Return to top

Associations:

ASEBIO (Spanish Biotech Association), http://www.asebio.com/es/index.cfm,

Genoma España, www.genoma.es

Bio-Clusters:

Madrid: http://www.madridbiocluster.es/red/madrid_biocluster/contacto

Catalonia: http://www.biocat.cat/en/about-us

Basque Country: www.biobasque.org,

Andalusia: http://www.andaluciabioregion.es/es/contacto.cfm

Valencia: http://www.ibv.org/es/que-es-el-ibv.html

http://www.bioval.org/index.html?lang=en

Spanish Government:

Spanish Institute for Foreign Trade (ICEX): http://www.spainbusiness.com

Spanish Ministry of Health: http://www.msps.es/

Commercial Service Spain: www.buyusa.gov/spain

Biotechnology Sector Specialist: Helen Crowley, Tel: +34 91 308 1548, Fax: +34 91 563 9859, e-mail: helen.crowley@trade.gov

Medical Equipment #7

Overview Return to top

USD thousands

Medical Equipment

2009

2010

estimated

2011 estimated

2012 estimated

Total Exports

2,084,000

1,876,000

1,904,000

1,932,000

Total Imports

5,884,000

5,233,000

5,337,000

5,444,000

Direct Imports from the U.S. *

899,000

872,000

916,000

961,000

Exchange rate: 1USD

0.718

0.754

0.754

0.754

Data source:

Exports-Unofficial estimates based on input from trade sources and Spanish Customs.

Imports - Unofficial estimates based on input from trade sources and Spanish Customs

The Spanish market for medical equipment continues to depend heavily on imports. U.S. medical equipment is highly regarded by Spanish medical professionals, domestic importers and distributors. The United States is one of the main suppliers to Spain.

Official statistics are not available for the sector. The only statistics available are the export/import figures for 2009. Medical equipment figures for 2009 represent a decrease of 1.6 percent in exports and an increase of 0.37 percent in imports over the previous year. However, if compared with a decrease in overall Spanish imports of 26 percent in 2009, the performance is not that negative. The exchange rate also needs to be taken into account.

It should be noted that imports from the United States are higher than the direct import figure indicated above. Many U.S. companies ship their products to a central clearing house in Europe. While this facilitates onward distribution within the EU, it distorts statistics. It is estimated that total U.S exports of medical equipment to Spain account for nearly 30 percent of imports in that segment.

Comprehensive medical attention is available for all Spaniards. As a result, public healthcare institutions are the main purchasers of medical equipment. These entities include public hospitals, health centers, research institutes, etc. The private healthcare sector accounts for approximately 10 – 15 percent of the market.

Most public healthcare sector purchases are made through tenders. Pre-selection among competing companies is made prior to the open bid. During pre-selection, supplying companies present the hospital with descriptions of their products and their prices. After reviewing the proposals, the hospital chooses the companies considered to be most suitable. The final purchase decision is made from this group of selected companies. In the private sector, tenders are not used. Normally, private hospitals select a small number of suppliers from whom they make direct purchases. Non-EU and U.S. companies need to have either a Spanish distributor or their own branch in Spain in order to participate in official tenders and to avail of other market opportunities.

The healthcare budget is administered by the regional governments. Some regional governments have started a new procurement procedure for basic (heavy) diagnostic and therapeutic equipment for new hospitals built in recent years. This procedure includes renewal of leases on terms for which they pay an annual fee for a given number of years, with the supplier responsible for maintaining and updating the equipment. Only a few large companies are selected for these processes, including some U.S. multinational companies.

Potential exists for U.S. products that are competitive, new or innovative in the U.S. market. Spain is a free-market economy with similar business practices to the U.S. as well as other EU countries. There are zero duties for importing medical devices from the U.S. to Spain.

Medical products and devices are now required to have the CE mark. Products registered prior to June 1998 when the CE mark was implemented, must be re-registered following the new EU Directive. The registration can be done in any EU country, including Spain, and the process can take from 6-8 months.

As a result of the development and expansion of the EU market and the requirement for the CE Mark, many U.S. companies have been centralizing their manufacturing and import operations into one single EU country from which they register and distribute their products to the rest of the EU.

Refurbished medical equipment can be imported but both public and private medical providers in Spain have traditionally shown only interest in new equipment. As is the case for new equipment, refurbished equipment must follow CE mark and registration with the Ministry of Health requirements.

Small and medium sized companies account for 92 percent of the market and account for over 40 percent of the turnover. Large companies account for only 8 percent of the market but they generate approximately 60 percent of the turnover. The regions of Madrid and Catalonia account for over 80 percent of medical equipment sales.

It is interesting to note that a significant percentage of companies (47 percent) operate in more than one sub/sector.

Due to the economic situation and the dominant position of the National Health System, the reimbursement system has slowed down considerably. According to the sector association, FENIN (Spanish Federation of Healthcare Technology Companies), the average delay in payment in 2009 was 269 days. The situation continued to deteriorate in 2010. This has caused cash flow problems for numerous importers/distributors. As a result, many currently prefer to focus their efforts on basic, essential products rather than on new products that require investment without any guarantee of demand for the products. The demand for medical products is expected to continue to grow over the coming years, although performance in the immediate future will continue at a slow pace until there is a turn-around in the economy.

Sub-Sector Best Prospects Return to top

Best products include innovative and efficient cardiology, respiratory/anesthesia, neurology, orthopedic, MRA, ETP, CT, and dermatology/wound treatment products. While there is a good demand for disposables, because of greater cost control, many disposables are now being sourced in Asia.

Opportunities Return to top

A good venue to meet with Spanish professionals is the Medica trade fair that takes place every November in Düsseldorf, Germany. A large delegation has traditionally visited the fair, albeit to exhibit their own products. However, many of these companies also import products. Numerous distributors also travel each year to the fair.

Web Resources Return to top

Directory: The Guia Puntex: importers, exporters and manufacturers of medical devices: www.puntex.es

Association: The Spanish Federation of Manufacturers, Exporters and Importers of medical devices (FENIN): www.fenin.es

Commercial Service Spain: www.buyusa.gov/spain

Trade Specialist for Medical Equipment: Helen Crowley, Tel: + 34 91 308 1548,

Fax: +34 91 563 0859, e-mail: helen.crowley@mail.doc.gov

Automobile Aftermarket, Auto Tuning and Maintenance #8

Overview Return to top

Unit: USD thousands

 

2009

2010

(estimated)

2011

(estimated)

2012

(estimated)

Turnover

622,080

658,000

664,580

671,160

Employment

8,000

8,000

8,080

8,160

Exchange Rate: USD 1.00

0.718

0.754

0.754

0.754

Data Sources: In-house and www.semashow.com

Car customization, or tuningas it is known among enthusiasts, has become an increasingly popular trend in Spain. Currently, reliable statistics showing overall market size, local production, exports and imports, are not available. However, industry experts note that despite the current economic crisis, even more individuals are looking for tuning their car instead of purchasing a new one. According to estimates made at the November 2009 Barcelona Tuning Show, the annual turnover in Spain is projected to reach about 450 million Euros (USD 658 million) in 2010, creating employment for 8,000 individuals.

Sub-Sector Best Prospects Return to top

The “tuning” subsector is heavily influenced by trends from the United States. As such, based on their reputation for quality and reliability, Spanish distributors and consumers of “tuning” accessories are interested in products from the United States—especially exhaust pipes, self-adhesive applications and lighting and signaling equipment (including light-emitting diodes, or LEDs). Despite the financial crisis which gripped Spain and most of the world in 2009, a delegation of over 80 Spanish firms attended the AAIW SEMA Show in Las Vegas (http://www.semashow.com/), down from 160 the year before. The SEMA Show, the largest aftermarket trade show in the U.S., is internationally renowned, especially in Spain, and offers the latest innovations in the automotive industry.

Opportunities Return to top

Currently, one-third of Spain’s 24.6 million automobiles have been operating more than 10 years. With a large number of old automobiles in circulation, there is a growing need for properly-equipped auto shops that can meet the demand for repair and maintenance services.

The rapid and steady growth of the automotive and aftermarket sector in Spain, combined with the solid reputation of U.S. automotive repair and maintenance equipment, should enable U.S. manufacturers to maintain and improve their position within the local market. Projections indicate that imports to Spain of automotive and aftermarket products from the United States will grow 5 percent over the next three years as highly technical/computerized equipment (mainly diagnostic and electronic equipment) becomes a standard feature of repair shops.

Industry association representatives are optimistic about growth in the repair and maintenance equipment market. The aging of existing automobiles, stricter enforcement of government technical inspections, and structural changes aimed at market competition and consumption will encourage market demand for auto repair and maintenance equipment, making it one of the most attractive subsectors in the automotive industry. These factors are expected to stimulate the total market size in the next few years.

“Tuning” enthusiasts represent a growing pool of end-users of automotive accessories. In recent years, trade events catering to this trend have appeared in Madrid (Madrid “tuning” Show and Festival) and Barcelona (Barcelona “tuning” Show), and have been known to attract as many as 100,000 visitors. “Tuning” accessories are consumed as luxury goods, not out of necessity. As such, enthusiasts have been known to spend a significant part of their salary, if not all, on automobile “tuning”.

According to the Specialty Equipment Market Association, SEMA, another indirect end-user is the Spanish automobile owner. Spaniards do not take their automobiles to the auto shop as often as the majority of their European peers. Spanish auto shops service 800 to 900 automobiles a year, while EU auto shops average an estimated 2,000 automobiles a year.

In the auto repair and maintenance market, the majority of end-users still consider quality and price as the most important factors governing purchasing decisions. Training and after-sales support services are two other factors that influence purchasing decisions among Spanish automobile repair professionals and owners alike.

In order to enter the Spanish market, the most effective way would be to partner with a local company to act as the local representatives.

In such a competitive sector, establishing a partnership with a local company can help establish market entry and obtain insight to the local environment.

Web Resources Return to top

U.S. links:

SEMA (Specialty Equipment Market Association): www.sema.org

Spanish links:

ANFAC (National Association of Automobile and Truck Manufacturers): http://www.anfac.es

Cámaras (Spanish Foreign Trade Statistics): http://aduanas.camaras.org

SERNAUTO (Spanish Association of Equipment Manufacturers for the Automotive Industry), http://www.sernauto.es/

Commercial Service Spain: www.buyusa.gov/spain

Automobile Sector Specialist: Carlos Perezminguez, Tel: +34 91 308 1598,

Fax: +34 91 563 0859, E-mail: carlos.perezminguez@mail.doc.gov

Agricultural Machinery #9

Overview Return to top

U.S. manufacturers of farm equipment and machinery have a long tradition in the Spanish market and are well known for the quality of the machines they produce. In 2010, the Spanish Ministry of Environment, Rural and Marine Affairs (MARM) verified that the top three sellers in the country continue to be the U.S. brands of John Deere, New Holland and Massey Ferguson. Spain holds promising opportunities for U.S. companies, with its main competitors coming from Japan and other European countries such as Italy and Germany. Although U.S. farm machinery exports to Europe have been declining recently, the U.S. remains one of the continent’s most important partners.

Spain imports much of the machinery that is used in agriculture even though local production maintains a solid presence, despite the economical crisis of the last two years. Trade statistics are not available for this sector.

Sub-Sector Best Prospects Return to top

The Spanish agricultural machinery and equipment sector includes the following categories:

 

Machinery and Equipment for Cattle

         
 

Irrigation Equipment

           
 

Sprayers and Equipment for Crop Protection

       
 

Post-Harvest Equipment

           
 

Agricultural Machinery (tractors, equipment for harvesting, transportation)

 
 

Farm Tools and Accessories/Components

       
   

A high percentage of Spanish tractors and agricultural machinery are antiquated and need to be replaced by new, safer equipment. Many tractors and pieces of machinery do not have adequate protection for the driver in case of rollover accidents. Poor braking and signaling systems, inefficient energy use and high pollutant emissions are also common problems.

Given these deficiencies, Spain’s MARM, through the autonomous communities, has launched the Plan Renove (which means the “Renewal Plan”) to increase the safety standards of agricultural equipment and encourage the replacement of outdated machinery.

In effect since 2001, and extended until 2013, the Plan offers grants to individuals, cooperatives and associations to replace tractors and self-propelled machines that have been in operation more than fifteen years.

Furthermore, all agricultural machinery in Spain needs to be tested for safety and quality standards to ensure that the minimum requirements are being met. Organized by MARM, several mechanical agricultural stations are responsible for this inspection activity.

The MARM also monitors the quantity of agricultural equipment and prepares an inventory of what is available in the Spanish territory to assess the level of mechanization and types of machinery used. Each new machine that is incorporated in the inventory is also registered with the Official Records of the Ministry which gathers information dealing with equipment size and brand categories. The yearly statistics generated by MARM are useful indicators of the country’s agricultural machinery supply.

Even though 2010 registered a general drop of 3.5 percent of new machinery incorporated in the official registry, sales of tractor trailers and accessories increased by 11.5 percent compared to 2009.  These tractor trailers and accessories, which are used to remove dirt and rocks and prepare the ground for planting, are generally attached in a suspended or drawn manner (dragged with or without wheels).

The central government is devoting substantial resources to support the incorporation of new means of production that are more efficient, safer and environmentally friendly. U.S. companies can highly benefit from this renewed emphasis to promote new agricultural machinery and equipment technologies aimed at cooperatives and other farmer groups.

Opportunities Return to top

Due to its arid climate, one of Spain’s most limited resources is water. The government of Spain’s water management policy aims to ensure rational and sustainable use of the resource. Of Spain’s water supply, 80 percent goes to irrigation. The geography, limited water and variety of crops in Spain require advanced and innovative irrigation technologies, offering opportunities for U.S. companies.

Currently there is a demand for manufacturers of plastic and brass sprinklers, pivot systems (lateral, central, multi-center), and other watering equipment. Spanish farmers also look for efficient filters to help deal with the different water properties and densities.

One of the aspects of the trends in irrigation is the increased usage of drip irrigation methods against surface irrigation (flood) methods as a more efficient and sustainable way for saving water and the environment. MARM registered a 2.3 percent increase from the period 2009 to 2010 on this type of equipment.

Additionally, a growing trend in the sector is fertigation, an irrigation system involving fertilization, for greenhouse applications and intensive farming that also used drip methods.

Web Resources Return to top

Ministry of Environment, Rural and Marine Affairs (MARM): http://www.marm.es

Official Records of Agricultural Machinery Registry

http://www.mapa.es/es/estadistica/pags/medios/maquinaria/maquinaria.htm

ICEX – Spanish Export Agency: http://www.icex.es

Agencia Tributaria – Spanish IRS: www.agenciatributaria.es

Instituto Nacional de Estadística - National Statistics Agency: http://www.ine.es/

European Commission – Agriculture and Rural Development

http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/capreform/index_en.htm

The U.S. Association of Equipment Manufacturers: http://www.aem.org

AGRAGEX – Spanish Manufactures and Exporters Association of Agricultural Machinery, Components, Irrigation Systems, Livestock and Post Harvesting Equipment

http://www.agragex.es/web/default.asp?idioma=idioma2

Agroterra.com – B2B internet agribusiness platform: www.agroterra.es

ANSEMAT – Spanish Association of Manufacturers and Importers of Ag.Machinery, Forestry and Green Spaces: http://www.ansemat.org/

Trade Shows

  • FIMA Ganadera International Animal Production Show

March 15-18, 2011, Zaragoza

http://www.feriazaragoza.es/fima_ganadera_IN.aspx

  • EXPOAVIGA Most important Livestock Breeding Technology Trade Show in Spain

2012, Barcelona

The Commercial Service and FIRA-ExpoAviga are working to certify this show and create a US pavilion for the 2012 event.

http://www.expoaviga.com

  • SMAGUA Most important Water Management and Engineering, Irrigation Trade Show in Spain

2012, Zaragoza

http://www.feriazaragoza.com/smagua.aspx

Commercial Service Spain: www.buyusa.gov

Agricultural Machinery Trade Specialist: Angela Turrin, Tel: +34-91-308-1564,

Fax: +34-91-563-0859, e-mail: angela.turrin@trade.gov